The Milazzese territory has a very varied flora. The species present are numerous and belong to very different environments; they range from the cliffs to the heights of the promontory, from the beaches to the hinterland. The gradual and, at the same time, substantial change in the territory can be seen in the transition from arid and sandy environments to very humid areas where, until recently, perennial waters flowed. As a result of human settlement, unfortunately, the water tables from which these waters originated have often been altered, altering and compromising the surrounding environments.

With the anthropisation of the territory, certain microclimatic and environmental conditions have disappeared and, as a result, some rare plants (such as Hydrocotile ranunculoides or Pteris cretica and Pteris vittata) have not been found in recent times. Another rare specimen found after extensive research in the north-western and southern part of the castle rock is Ephedra distachya, which is listed as an endangered species.
However, the types of vegetation found in Milazzo today are varied and rich in rare species. The most relevant and typical of the area are:

- Macchia

- High scrub or forest scrub

- Steppe

- Garrigue

- Riparian vegetation (of stream banks)

- Rupicola vegetation

- Halophilous vegetation

- Wetland vegetation

The Mediterranean scrubland of Milazzo consists mainly of mastic trees (Pistacia lentiscus), heather (Erica arborea), common broom (Spartium junceum) and Mediterranean honeysuckle (Lonicera implexa). It often becomes dense and impassable due to the thorny tangles of St. John's rose (Rosa sempervirens), prickly asparagus (Asparagus acutifolius) and ivy (Hedera helix).

Species of small ferns develop in cooler, shady places.
These include the southern polypodium (Polypodium australis), the black asplenium adiantum (Asplenium adiantum nigrum), the greater asplenium (Asplenium onopteris), and the obovate asplenium (Asplenium obovatum); species such as the flowering ash (Fraxinus ornus) and the viburnum (Viburnum tinus) are counted among the vulnerable species.
The most widespread species in the promontory, especially during the winter and spring period, is the tree spurge (Euphorbia dendroides), which grows in drier conditions.
Scrub covers the steep slopes and a large part of the abandoned olive groves along the eastern strip of the Promontory; it is completely absent, except where it grows on the edges of country roads, in the Piana area.
The degradation of the 'Mediterranean forest', commonly called ilex grove due to the predominant presence of holm oaks (Quercus ilex), has led to the development of macchia alta or macchia forest. This evergreen oak due to deforestation is only sporadically found and has been replaced along the coastal strip by the downy oak (Quercus virgiliana). In the promontory and the plain, there is no trace of any spontaneous holm oak. As the altitude increases, where the Peloritani and hill belt begins, holm oaks become more frequent.
Species such as the flowering ash (Fraxinus ornus) and the hackberry (Celtis australis) grow in the promontory and the plain, respectively. Plants such as the local sarsaparilla (Smilax aspera) and wild madder (Rubia peregrina) grow mostly in shady areas. Other specimens include the myrtle (Myrtus communis), wild apple tree (Malus sylvestris), alantern (Ramnus alanternus), wild pear tree (Pyrus pyraster), wild plum tree (Prunus spinosa) and common hawthorn (Crataegus media).
Garrigue is a form of bushy vegetation that develops in areas where scrubland has been destroyed. In our area, it can be found in the western part of the promontory, where it often fails to evolve into more mature vegetative forms due to exposure to westerly winds and the xericity (dryness) of the environment. Typical bushy plants of the garrigue are the villous spartium (Calicotome villosa), arborescent mugwort (Artemisia arborescens), timelea barbosa (Timelaea hirsuta), Sicilian tea (Prasium majus), double camedrio (Teucrium flavum), and other plants such as the maritime scilla (Urginea maritima) and Mediterranean asphodel (Asphodelus microcarpus). Rarer and more endemic species are the Panormitanian green-brown ophrys (Ophrys sphegodes subsp. Panormitana), the island holy thorn (Lycium intricatum), the Messina cinerary senecio (Senecio gibbosus), the Etna cinerary senecio (Senecio ambiguus) and the Sicilian hyacinth (Bellevalia dubia).
The steppe is the result of further degradation of the Mediterranean scrub and garrigue. Fires and pastures are the elements that mainly favour the emergence of this type of vegetation. The Mediterranean barberry (Hyparrenia hirta), a grass that forms perennial bushes, is the most representative and widespread species in steppe areas. Common spearmint (Calamintha nepeta), common filigree (Lobularia maritima), blue viper (Echium vulgare), scarlina (Galactites tomentosa) and various umbelliferous plants such as common fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) are usually associated with it, the common opoponace (Opoponax chironium), the common firrastrina (Thapsia garganica), the common ferula (Ferula communis) and the filiform balisiscus (Cachrys pungens). A few species of thistles are also widespread in the steppe: golden ray sedge (Carlina corymbosa), masticogna laticifera (Atractylis gummifera) and greater onopordum (Onopordum illyricum).
The cliff, due to its particular morphology, presents favourable conditions for the birth and preservation of various plant species. The rocky environment, being characterised by sloping and overhanging rock faces, makes all kinds of human activities impracticable, and the spread of fires is a rather remote phenomenon. These are the reasons why it is rich in rare and endemic plant species. Indigenous species such as the common caper (Capparis spinosa), the rock carnation (Dianthus rupicola), the cliff vedovine (Scabiosa cretica), the cliff gorse (Lotus cytisoides), the Boccone fennel (Seseli bocconi) grow on the cliffs of the Promontory, the Cosentini hyssop (Microneria cosentina), the Sicilian brassica (Erucastrum virgatum), the cliff radicchio (Hyoseris taurina) and the viscous bullet thistle (Echinops spinosissimus), a rare species found in Italy only in Milazzo, Patti, Tindari and Novara di Sicilia. The latter species was already considered rare by 19th-century botanists. On the cliff overlooking the Pietre Rosse beach, along the rocky ridge north of the castle and at the the Tono near the so-called 'Ngonia', the presence of the dwarf palm (Chamaerops humilis) has been identified.
As a result of the anthropisation of the area, various exotic plants have been introduced and have found their way onto the cliff: agave (Agave americana) and various species of Opuntia (commonly known as prickly pear) of which the most widespread is Opuntia dillenii.
Saline environments such as cliffs and sand dunes near the sea are home to a particular type of vegetation known as halophilous. These are plants that grow where sea salts are abundant both in the substrate and in the atmosphere.
Human intervention, building expansion and the creation of roads close to the sea have wiped out much of the sand dune, compromising the original spontaneous vegetation, which is often destroyed by the use of bulldozers and artificial levelling of the sands. Typical plants of the halophilous dune vegetation are: cliff gorse (Lotus cytisoides), horned poppy (Glaucium flavum), wild violacea (Matthiola triscupidata), common sea lily (Pancratium maritimum), sea lucerne (Medicago marina), sea rocket (Salsola kali), sea rocket (Cakile maritima), sea rocket (Eryngium maritimum), sea polygonum (Polygonum maritimum), sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum), thin vetch (Vicia pseudocracca). These species take root quickly on the sands and are therefore referred to as 'pioneers'. Rare specimens of so-called 'pioneer' plants are the cornflower grespin (Centaurea sonchifolia), beach crabgrass (Agropyron junceum) and elongated crabgrass (Agropyron elongatum). The former is a perennial herbaceous plant characterised by its purple colour when flowering in late spring. The last two, respectively, beach couch grass and elongated couch grass, are perennial grasses that are rare for the Italian flora.
The cliff carrot (Daucus gingidium subsp. fontanesii) is a specimen that grows on the less arid escarpments and at the edge of the beaches of the Promontory, mostly on the north-eastern side.
The riparian vegetation in the Milazzese territory grows along the shores of the Mela and Floripòtema streams. Unfortunately, for several decades these watercourses have been in a degraded condition due to landfills, earthworks and logging. Only in a few stretches not subject to such activities are certain species able to develop and sometimes give rise to evolved forms of vegetation. The mouth of the Floripòtema is an example of a 'green area' in the midst of the grey industrial zone. Here grow black poplars (Populus alba), tamarisks (Tamarix africana), white willows (Salix alba), oleanders (Nerium oleander) and southern rush bushes (Holoschoenus australis). Before the advent of industrialisation, this area was characterised by perennial wetlands, as evidenced to this day by the presence of dense reed thickets (Phragmites australis). Along the Mela stream, in addition to the aforementioned marsh reed, the red willow (Salix purpurea), common alder (Alnus glutinosa), chaste agnus (Vitex agnus-castus), leafy rush (Juncus subulatus) and greater sagebrush (Typha latifolia) also grow. Small autumn-blooming perennial shrubs, such as Italian immortelle (Helichrysum italicum), common scrophularia (Scrophularia canina) and enula cepittoni (Inula viscosa), grow on the non-perennially submerged sands of the riverbeds of both rivers.
The vegetation of the wetlands is limited at the Promontorio springs. On the western slope, near the so-called 'funtanedda' springs, a thick reed thicket of domestic reed (Arundo donax) grows. On the eastern slope, near the Sant'Opolo stream, in addition to weedy bushes of common bramble (Rubus ulmifolius), there are species whose existence is linked to the humidity of the soil and the flow of water. These include the common incensaria (Pulicaria dysenterica), the detached sedge (Carex divulsa), the southern bulrush (Holoschoenus australis), the Italian orchid (Orchis italica), the tongue serapis (Serapias lingua), an orchid that grows in both arid and humid areas, the creeping panicum (Panicum repens), and the water flax (Samolus valerandi). The last two species mentioned are rare and tend to grow in wet and marshy environments.